Andy is a Clinical Lecturer in renal medicine at Addenbrooke’s Hospital and both a Fellow and the Director of Studies for medicine at Christ’s College. Within the college he splits his time between teaching pharmacology and renal physiology and overseeing medical teaching. His clinical work is a mix of general nephrology, transplantation and general international medicine. For his research Andy uses a wide variety of techniques including high resolution confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, mass spectroscopy and single cell RNA sequencing to investigate the cellular, micro-vesicle, protein and nucleic acid content of human urine in health and disease. This information allows better understanding of innate and adaptive urothelial defence systems against urinary tract infections, the roles of these processes in renal autoimmune disease and can also be used to non-invasively reveal mechanisms and biomarkers for a variety of other renal pathologies.